stored groundnuts ,All stages of producing peanuts 12

stored groundnuts

All stages of producing peanuts to trade this product 12


 Table 23. Summary of chemical used for prevention of infection of stored groundnuts.

Control operationsInsecticide and formulation1Application rate with specified a.i. concentration2
Application of insecticidal spray to interior surfaces of infested stores before refillingMalathion (w.p)250 g 25% a.i. in 5Lwater 100m-2
Fenitrothion (e.c)200 ml 50% a.i. in 5L water


Chlorpyriphosmethyl (e.c.)200 ml 50% a.i. in 5L water




200 ml 50% a.i. in 5L water


Iodofenphos (s.e.)200 ml 50% a.i. in 5L water


Deltamethrin (w.p.)200 ml 50% a.i. in 5L water


Space treatment of empty stores before refillingDichlorvos (resin strips)1 strip 30 m-3
Direct application of spray to pods or to sacks containing pods or kernelsMalathion (w.p) 
Fenitrothion (e.c.)Apply at half the rate recommended above
Chloropyriphosmethyl (e.c.)


Iodofenphos (s.c.)
Deltamethrin +

piperonyl butoxide


10 ml in 990 ml water t-1
Surface application to or admixture of insecticidal dust with podsMalathion (dust)500 g 2% a.i. t-1
Deltamethrin (dust)500 g 0.2% a.i. t-1
Fenitrothion + carbaryl (dust)500 g 1.2% + 0.8% a.i. m-2 of surface area
Bromophos (dust)200 g 2% a.i. m-2 of surface area

stored groundnuts


Table 24. Summary of chemical used for control of infection for protection of stored groundnuts.

Control operationsInsecticide and formulation1Application rate with specified a.i. concentration2
Fumigation of bagged or bulk stocks in gas-tight stores or under gas-tight sheetingMethyl bromide + chloropicrin (gas)10-15 g m-3 for 24 h (dosage increased for control of T.


Phosphine (solid aluminium phosphide)3-5 tablets or 15-25 pellets 57% a.i. t-1 for 7-10 d.
Fumigation of small quantities of pods or kernels in polyethylene-lined sacks or containers such as drumsPhosphine (solid)2-3 pellets 100 kg-1 for 7-10 d.
Ethylene dibromide (liquid)3 ml 100 kg-1
Ethylene dibromide + carbon tetrachloride, 1:8 mixture (liquid)12 ml 100 kg-1

a.i. = active ingredient; e.c. = emulsification concentration; s.c. suspension concentration;

w.p. = wettable powder.Source: Dick, K.M. 1987

If other formulations are used with a.i. concentrations differing from those given above, the amount of whole product used must be changed accordingly.

In countries resembling India and its subcontinents where groundnut is sown immediately after the summer season, the shelling of pods and storing of seed (kernels) for even a month or two in advance of the sowing period may result in the impairment of the viability and damage by insects pests. It is therefore recommended that the seed should be shelled only a week before sowing. There is urgent need to establish the potential and practicality of the integration of biological, physical and chemical control measures, in order to reduce the problems created by the synthetic insecticides. Information on the effect of mainly the bruchid (C. serratus) insect infestation plus on the quality of groundnut oil from the groundnut-growing areas other than West Africa is urgently required. This might eventually allow the determination of economic thresholds for the main pests attacking stored groundnuts in the developing countries.

A new method for the protection of stored groundnuts in Africa Numerous pests, notably rats and insects invade groundnut in storage in the granary. Groundnut bruchid is the most important pest. Damage caused by this insect in 1988 to 1992 was extensive for whole granaries were totally destroyed. Research into low cost technology to protect stored groundnut showed that Samakada (Swatzia madagascariensis), 2 kg of powder fruits to treat 100 kg groundnuts was very effective against Bruchids and Pyralids for the groundnuts stored in granaries. Additions of sand as an abrasive material at the farm level was very effective (Doumbouya, 1998).

  1. Economic and Social Considerations

Field operations of groundnut crops correspond in many respects to other annual crops. Only in the preparation of seed for sowing, harvesting and processing of produce for the market, does groundnut differ essentially from the rest. For the case of groundnut these operations are not only time-consuming but also expensive. In spite of these handicaps, farmers prefer this crop because it is easy to sell and fetches a fair return.

Groundnut is the fourth most important source of edible oil and the third most important source of vegetable protein. It contributes significantly to the diet of people in many developing countries. Populations in rural areas largely depend upon subsistence agriculture, as there is low consumption of food of protein-rich animal products. The consumption of groundnut can minimize dietary deficiency. It has high caloric value from oil, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Protein content does lack lysine and methionine. Self-sufficiency in these two amino acids can be achieved through genetic improvement in cultivated groundnut. Please see Figure 37.

stored groundnuts

 Figure 37. In a village of Saurastra (Gujarat) groundnut haulms as animal fodder are stored in the room the remaining space is being utilized for educating the new generation.


The smallholder producing groundnut as a food crop for their traditional farming practices have been little affected by improvements in agricultural technologies. Thus strategies to benefit smallholder farmers means more work opportunities for ever-increasing members of underemployed rural poor.

stored groundnuts

Groundnut as a source of protein and oil can play a major role in improving the calorie and protein value of the diet available to poor men and school children. This is particularly true in the developing countries, where malnutrition is a major problem. The harsh fact is that over more than half a billion people in the world are malnourished. Mozambique is the largest producer of groundnut in southern Africa. The crop is grown almost throughout the country, with the largest concentration in Nampula Province in the northern region. Groundnut plays an important role both as food and cash crop for smallholder farmers. It is a key component of the rural diet and provides supplementary cash income to women farmers. The crop is grown and managed mostly by resource-poor farmers, especially women.

The haulms at the harvest and cake after extraction of the oil are a major source of nutrients for animals. On small farms, they form the principal fodder and feeds for the ruminant livestock during dry season. Wild perennial Arachis species are also potential source of green fodder, chiefly in the dry season. In drought prone areas of Gujarat (India), farmers prefer groundnut crops because of its drought tolerant character, lower water requirement (especially during the vegetative phase) and fodder value. Concerns about inadequate utilization of available feed in the developing countries have lead to the establishment of research programmes to improve the nutritive value and utilization of crop residues as ruminant feed. Despite this, farmer uptake of research findings has been limited. Farming system research may be an essential tool to enhance the relevance of research on groundnut production and utilization in the semi-arid tropics. At the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), village level agricultural studies in India and in West Africa were conducted in the millet/groundnut zone. On the face of it, groundnut as a cash-food crop should blend well into drought tolerant food production systems. When the price is right more groundnuts can be grown for sale enabling the purchase of food requirements when groundnuts are in greatest demand. The crop fits well into nutritional subsistence food production systems.

stored groundnuts

The significance of groundnut as fodder and feed may vary in different production systems. Diversity of production goals, resource endowments and socio-economic conditions create assorted opportunities for the use of crop residue. Consequently, in designing research and extension projects that seek to improve its use as livestock feed, it is pertinent to identify the main livestock production systems, farmers’ production objectives, resource endowments and determine the appropriate crop-residue-based diet for each system. Groundnut has several qualities and utilities that also fit well in the sustainable food production system. For instance, groundnut possesses the ability to maintain or increase food production over the long term without damaging or depleting the resource base in the fragile ecosystem.

stored groundnuts

5.1 Overview of costs and losses

Farming is a business proposition like industry and costs are accounted for against returns. The data on the production costs provide the basic framework to analyse the economic viability of the crop. The awareness of the farmers about increases in the prices of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticides has made them more cost conscious. As a result they resort to enterprise budgeting before raising the crop. Detailed study of the cost components of production and distribution may help to cut down excessive costs on less productive components. Analysis can also guide decisions to increase investment on more productive components. Study of cost price structure may form the basis for minimizing costs and increasing profitability. Hence, there is a need for data collection relevant to the crop production costs on a comprehensive basis in the developing countries.

stored groundnuts

The high cost of production for groundnut is mainly due to the heavy seed-rate adopted and the large labour force employed for harvesting and threshing. As groundnut have large seeds and low multiplication ratio, collecting the seed costs about 40 percent of the total cultivation outlay. The expenditure on these and other cultivation operations varies largely between groundnut-growing countries. Farming expenses are conditional on the variety grown, soil and climatic conditions, cultivation practices, implements used for field operations, rate of hire charges for work bullocks, wages of mazdoors plus other factors.

stored groundnuts

Note: The cost of cultivation increases with the use of technology. Examples include tilling with the help of tractor, sowing by seed drill and inter-culture by mini-tractor. Tractors and other farm machinery provide pay back in timesavings from faster execution of these operations. Details of current cultivation practices in Gujarat, India are furnished in Table 25.


Table 25. Assessment of the cost of cultivation of groundnut during rainy and summer seasons in Junagadh district of Gujarat, India.

Details of field operationsRainy season Bunch typeRainy season Runner typeSummer season Bunch type
1. Preparatory tillage   
i.) Ploughing with country plough 2 men (@ US$2 per person and US$3 per 2 bullock pair)101010
ii.) Harrowing (1 man, 1 bullock pair)555
iii.) Planking (1 man and 1 bullock pair)555
2. Seed and sowing   
i.) Runner (100 kg h-1 and Bunch 120 kg h1)655465
ii. Seed treatment (500 g Dithane M 45)222
iii. Sowing (2 men and 2 bullock pairs)101010
iv.) Manure (FYM 10 t h-1, 4 tasks)777
v.) Fertilizer (N as urea and P as SSP)12.512.525
vi.) Irrigation (7 tasks)rainfedrainfed27
3. After care   
i.) Intercultivation (2 men and 2 bullock pairs)101010
ii.) Weeding (thrice in rainy and twice in summer seasons)393926
iii.) Pesticides spray5.45.43.2
4. Harvesting   
i.) Digging with blade (2 men and 2 bullock pairs)555
ii. Drying, cleaning and threshing (10 tasks with one motor thresher run for 5 hours)343434
Details of field operationsRainy season Bunch typeRainy season Runner typeSummer season Bunch type
5. Interest on working capital @ 10% for 4 months1078
6. Supervision charges @ 10% of working


7. Repairing and depreciation charges of implements @ 3% per annum for 4 months333
8. Depreciation charges of buildings @ 2% approximate cost of building US$1 086.222222
9. Total fixed capital (1+ 8)356344385
10. Interest on fixed capital @ 6% for 4 months778
11. Land rent @ 16% of gross income for

4 months

12. Total cost of cultivation494498540
13. Total income
i.) Main product587652652
ii.) By product228271271
14. Profit = income- cost321425373

Source: Department of Agronomy Gujarat Agriculture University, Junagadh campus, Junagadh. Cost of cultivation has been calculated in US$ per hectare.stored groundnuts


The cost of raising the rain-fed crop ranges from US$450 to 550 ha-1 depending on local conditions. It is generally more expensive in Tamil Nadu where most of the field operations are carried out manually. The comparatively low cost in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat is mainly due to the use of labour saving implements and adoption of low seed-rate. In spite of the high cultivation cost in Tamil Nadu the return from the crop compares favourably with those obtained in other states because of the higher yields obtained. Even in this State, the production cost is perhaps the highest in the Pollachi area as a result of the thorough preparatory cultivation given to the fields and the very heavy seed rate used. The rental charges for work bullocks and mazdoors wages are also substantial.


Groundnut cultivation employing irrigation is done extensively in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharastra and Gujarat states. Cultivation of the irrigated crop is generally more rigorous as it receives special attention such as preparing the land, manuring and other tasks.

The cultivation costs for the irrigated crop in Gujarat is identified in Table 25. As the irrigated crop offers better yield and economic returns, a large area should be devoted to this method. Rain-fed crop as well should be supplemented by irrigation during dry periods wherever facilities are available. These steps would help to boost the area under cultivation and the crop yield in India. In Saurastra, India best returns may be achieved at the start of the monsoon, if the farmers are able to sow the runner crop variety in the first fortnight of June. However; if the onset of monsoon is delayed and sowing is not possible during June, farmers should always sow the short duration bunch types instead.

Ways to reduce cultivation costs: The need for reducing the cultivation costs of this crop has not been realized by growers in the developing countries. The problem arises out of two important considerations: i.) ensuring optimum return from the crop even under conditions of low prices, ii.) facing competition from the other groundnut growing countries.

Thus cost of cultivation may be reduced by mechanization with the hand operated or power operated implements as suited to the location and specific area.

  1. Implements to be used for reducing expenditure on sowing, intercultivation and harvest of the crop have been demonstrated widely by various agricultural universities. The volume of work required to strip groundnut pods may be reduced considerably, using a mechanical stripper. A drum-type groundnut stripper developed by the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University can strip about 150 kg of pods in 8 hours by engaging only one women worker.
  2. Use of a hand-operated oscillating type or pedal-operated decorticator would diminish the shelling cost considerably without serious damage to kernels. Even in separating healthy seed from the shrivelled, broken and diseased ones, the process of handpicking can be avoided by the use of a grader.
  3. It is now widely recognized that line sowing with seed drills helps to regulate seedrate and cover large areas within a short time.
  4. Farmers are reluctant to invest in fertilizer and pesticides because of the risks involved in raising rain-fed groundnut crops. This is due to the uncertainty regarding quantity and distribution of rainfall during the crop period. Doubt concerning rainfall leads to instability in production, productivity and widely fluctuating price patterns due to extreme speculative trade in groundnuts. If price support is offered to the farmers, they may invest in quality seed, fertilizers, pesticides and thereby increase productivity.

Thus there is a wide scope of activities to reduce the cost of cultivating the groundnut crop in the developing countries. The state Departments of Agriculture should undertake large-scale tests with the various labour saving implements and machinery available. Further they should standardize the operations in each case with a view to reducing expenses to the minimum. Extensive use of such labour saving devices would only enable farmers of the developing countries to realize a better return from the crop. Appropriate crop growing techniques also makes developing nations more competitive compared to other groundnut-growing countries, especially those which are fully equipped for the cultivation of groundnut in mechanized farming.

Competition with other crops: In India groundnut is grown primarily as rain-dependent crop and usually competes with jowar, bajara, cotton and paddy. In spite of the higher cost of cultivation and several risks, including drought during the pod-fill phase, the farmers prefer groundnut. For example, in Gujarat groundnut competes primarily with bajara. However, following the introduction of bajara in the mid 1960s, groundnut lost its relative share in gross crop area until the mid 1970s. Since than, there has been an upward trend in groundnut acreage accompanied by a decline in bajara`s area. Price Commission, the agency responsible for recommending support and procurement prices conducted a survey “The impact of India’s

دیدگاه شما با موفقیت ثبت شد.

نظرتان را ثبت نمایید.

شماره همراه شما منتشر نخواهد شد.